We have compiled a library of information to help patients understand many common diagnoses. Visit the Request a Consultation  page to get in contact with our specialists for more in depth information and treatment options.


Have you been told your pain is “treatment resistant,” and led to believe it is somehow your fault –because treatment didn’t work for you?

Effective treatment is not about the cause of the pain, it’s about whatever gets in the way, i.e., “treatment resistance.” However, treatment resistance is not about what the patient has or hasn’t done.


Most people feel sad or irritable from time to time. They may say they’re in a bad mood. A mood disorder is different. It affects a person’s everyday emotional state. Nearly 1 in 10 people 18+ have mood disorders.

These include depression and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). Mood disorders can increase a person’s risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. First-principle treatments include chemical manipulation (medication & supplements), psychotherapy, or a combination of both.

Head Injury

A concussion is a traumatic brain injury that alters the way your brain functions. Effects are usually temporary but can include headaches and problems with concentration, memory, balance and coordination.

Although concussions usually are caused by a blow to the head, they can also occur when the head and upper body are violently shaken. These injuries can cause a loss of consciousness, but most concussions do not. Because of this, some people have concussions and don’t realize it.


Stroke is also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA). It results from damage to the brain caused by sudden interruption of its blood supply. This deprives the brain of oxygen and nutrients, and also triggers a chain event of “emergency” responses. Some of those responses are clearly helpful – such as reduction of activity in the “penumbra”; but other physiological responses are clearly destructive – such as the derangement of inflammatory responses.

Cognitive Impairment

Various terms can be included in the category of Cognitive impairment or Cognitive deficit, including : MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment ), static encephalopathy, degenerative brain disease, any of a variety of dementias, etc.

Cognitive impairment is in fact an inclusive term to describe any condition that acts as a barrier to ”thinking”. The term may describe deficits in global intellectual disability (previously called mental retardation), or other deficits in cognitive abilities (previously called learning disability), or it may describe drug-induced cognitive/memory impairment.


Developmental disorders is a group of neuropsychiatric conditions originating in childhood that involve serious impairment in different areas of everyday function. These comprise language disorders, learning disorders, motor disorders and autism spectrum disorders. In broader definitions ADD/ADHD & disorders of executive function are included. Developmental disorders are present from early life and are sometimes prodromal to classical Psychiatric illness like depression, anxiety, psychosis, or dementia.

Substance Abuse

High rates of treatment resistant depression or pain occur in those people who misuse intoxicating substances. Treatment-resistance (TR) causes self-medicating misuse but the increased incidence of TR can in turn be caused by misuse. Abuse of other drugs is also associated with an increased risk of suicide.

Interpersonal skills are significantly impaired in people who misuse intoxicants due to the neurotoxic effects on the brain, especially the “higher-order areas” such as the prefrontal (anterior) cortex of the brain.

Additional Topics

The spectrum of Neuropsychiatric disorders is extensive so, in this subchapter, we consider a number of topics concerning not only definitions, but also matters related to diagnostic, treatment, followup, and epidemiology. As an intellectual diversion, one might consider the impediments to treatment, that I described as the “medical-industrial complex”.

Additional Education & Resources from Leaders in Our Field

Linus Pauling Institute - Research Newsletters